What Are The Different types of Pacifism?


Pacifism opposes any war or violence as a means of settling the differences. According to the pacifists, a war declared by a state and the participants that fight the war on the behalf of the country is wrong. They strongly believe that any sort of conflict can be resolved without resorting to war.


There are multiple types of pacifism practiced by people across the world, but all of them say that the violence and the war to resort to an issue is unjustifiable.


Why Do People Practice Pacifism?


There are different reasons for that as well. Some people practice it for religious reasons, while others practice it to maintain the sanctity of life.


There is yet another group of people who considers that war is a wasteful affair that destroys both human life as well as the environment. According to these people, most of the time war does not resolve the main issue. Instead, it keeps the issue alive for years, if not centuries.


What Are The Different Types of Pacifism?


Absolute pacifism


The pacifists who believe in this type of pacifism think that taking part in a war is never right. They believe that people should not consort to violence even in self-defence. According to them, the lives of humans are extremely valuable, and there is absolutely nothing that can justify the act of killing another human being.


Conditional Pacifism


People who practice this type of pacifism are against violence and war in principle. However, they accept the reality and acknowledge that there might be some cases where the alternative to the war can be worse.


Selective Pacifism


There is yet another group of pacifists who consider the degree of violence and war and oppose them accordingly. These pacifists only oppose the war that involves weapons and leads to mass destruction. They strongly oppose the use of the nuclear, biological and chemical weapons in a war. Most probably, because of the level of the destruction and the reason that these ways are not winnable.


Active Pacifism


These are the pacifists who are heavily involved in political activities to promote peace. They often weigh the political impact of the war and argue against some particular ones.


During the war, while some of the pacifists will refuse to go to the war, others will try to take every step to reduce the harmful effects of the war. It is the act of the pacifists at the critical moments that will help you to identify their ideological differences.


The Chicago Cubs was established in the year 1870 by William Hulbert. Since its birth, the club has been in the top form. They have created many records as a club. Even individual players have such records that no one could break till now. They have been one of the founder clubs of the National League. They have won 17 National League Pennants, 5 Central and 3 east division titles respectively. They have been the world champion three times- 1907, 1908, and 2016.


The cubs have gone through several evolutions starting from ownership, managers, and even their name has been changed 3 times. But their performance and ranking have been consistent throughout. They have bagged the position of 16th most valuable sports team in the world and 12th in the United States.


Last seasons


  • National League 2018 – 2nd position
  • National League 2019 – 3rd position


In the decade of 2010s, the cubs have won a total of 817 matches with a winning percentage of .504.


The Cub’s Post-COVID 19 Strategy


The cubs have had consistent and overwhelming performance till the last season but COVID 19 the world pandemic had changed the entire scenario. Not only the game but the entire franchise is in big trouble.


It has been projected that the cubs will lose 199 million US dollars with prorated player’s salaries before taking into consideration the interest taxes and other factors. A plan of revenue sharing with the players in the upcoming years has put been forward to the players by the owner but the players have balked the proposal.


The most crucial problem that has shaken the management is two official of the club has been tested COVID positive. This has played a devastating impact on club management and the players. Due to lockdown declared by the government, the spring season has been postponed and there is no clear picture of when it can restart. As notified by the state authority matches can be conducted but there shall not be any physical viewer.


Meanwhile, Major League is busy preparing a large number of contingency plans in coordination with the related clubs regarding the schedule of 2020 and it will declare them soon.


Not only the cubs but other clubs are also facing huge losses. Hope we stand together and pray for a better tomorrow. May we soon see our baseball clubs in their regular activities and the Chicago Cubs roar again.

The Chicago Cubs is the King of Baseball Clubs. Formerly, known as Chicago White Stockings, started its journey in the year 1870 with their then owner and President William Hulbert. In 1876, it joined the National League (NL) as a charter member. Soon they emerged as a top team in the NL Central Division.


Apart from playing home matches, it even competed in Major League Baseball. Some of the notable players of the team were pitcher Albert Spalding, infielders Deacon White, Ross Barnes, and Adrian Cap Anson.


White Stockings earned back-to-back pennants in the year 1880 and 1881. They were awarded the pennant for the third consecutive year in 1882. Between 1876 and 1886 the Cubs won six pennants under Anson as a player and manager. Soon they got nicknamed as Anson’s Colts or Chicago Colts. To be noted Anson created history by collecting 3000 career hits as the first player.


Owners and managers changed but the club went on with their success.




William Hulbert was the owner of the Chicago Cubs. After Hulbert’s death, Spalding became the owner, and Anson became the player-manager. In 1914, after obtaining large shares of the club, Albert Lasker became the owner. Bill Wrigley after securing a huge stock of the Cubs became the majority owner in 1916. Presently, Thomas S Ricketts is the owner.


General Managers


At the early stage, the club did not have any official managers. Charles Webber was the first one to hold the post of general manager in the year 1934. Since then there are 13 mangers except the 2 interims.


  1. Charles Webber: 1934-1940
  2. James Gallagher: 1940-1949
  3. Wid Matthews: 1950-1956
  4. John Holland: 1957-1975
  5. Satty Sattwell: 1976
  6. Bob Kennedy: 1977-1981
  7. Dallas Green: 1981-1987
  8. Jim Frey: 1987-1991
  9. Larry Himes: 1991-1994
  10. Ed Lynch: 1994-2000
  11. Andy Mac Phail: 2000-2002
  12. Jim Hendry: 2002-2011
  13. Jed Hoyer: 2011-Till Date


League Affiliations


  • National League – 1876 to present
  • Central Division – 1994 to present
  • East Division – 1969 to 1993


Evolution of the Club’s Name


  • Chicago White Stockings:- 1976-1889
  • Chicago Colts:- 1890-1897
  • Chicago Orphans:- 1898-1902
  • Chicago Cubs:- 1903- present


Major League Titles


It has won major World Series titles in 1907, 1908, and 2016; apart from Central Division Titles, East Division Titles, National League Pennants, and more.


World Ranking


The Chicago Cubs are ranked as the 16th most valuable sports team in the world, 12th in the US, 3rd in the MLB, and the first in the city of Chicago as of 2018.







It stands opposite to the word violence. The word was first coined by French peace campaigner and lawyer Emile Arnaud. It was later adopted in 1902, at the tenth Universal Peace Congress held at the Glasgow city in the United Kingdom. In India, it is known as ‘Ahimsa’.

As per John the Apostle through the verse 14.27 it is mentioned “Peace I leave with you: my peace I give to you. Not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your hearts be troubled, neither let them be afraid.”


Pacifism leads to Pacifist and they are formed due to various reasons:-

  • Believing that war is ineffective and wasteful.
  • Strong religious faith.
  • Believing in the safety of the human race irrespective of religious faith.

The list is huge but mentioning some of the eminent pacifists from across the world are:-

  • Albert Einstein
  • John Lennon
  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • Oscar Wilde
  • Martin Luther King Junior
  • Hellen Keller
  • Leo Tolstoy
  • Tenzin Gyasto, the 14th Dalai Lama
  • Malala Yousafazi

Types of Pacifism

Absolute Pacifism:

This type of pacifist believes that it is not correct to take part in the war and not even in self-defense. They give high value to human life and believe that nothing can justify the killing. They stick to the principle that even an innocent person who is attacked and killed will not be rescued. Rescuing the attacked person is considered unethical. They are following strong moral principles and it makes them unaware of the results of war or violence. They argue that violence leads to worse results than non-violence.

Conditional Pacifism:

They are also against war and violence but they accept the fact that in certain circumstances war will be less destructive. They generally follow the Utilitarian principles where the consequences are considered worse than war.

Selective Pacifism:

This category of the pacifist is a bit different and they oppose war involving nuclear or chemical weapons and mass destruction. They consider that these types of weapons lead to devastating consequences. This type of war causes after-effects and for which the human race needs to pay a huge cost.

Active Pacifism:

Active pacifists are highly involved with political activity and promote peace and argue against particular wars. They actively take part in reducing the harm of war and renders supports to the country during this time. Most of the democratic countries are following this path of pacifism.





Rick kelo

Rick Kelo is an influential political philosopher in the Classic Liberal tradition.  In addition to engaging in various public debates on capitalism vs. socialism with socialist university professors Rick also routinely addresses some of the hard questions out there.  Rick Kelo has earned a reputation for dissecting even obscure and complicated topics in plain English.

Recently Rick Kelo asked us to consider whether having a democracy means the people in that country will have freedom?  “One of the Classic Liberal philosophers whose reading I’ve always enjoyed was Joseph Priestly,” Kelo notes.   Priestly looked at this exact topic:

IT is a matter of the greatest importance, that we carefully distinguish between the form and the extent of power in a government… If the power of government be very extensive, and the subjects of it have, consequently, little power over their own actions, that government is tyrannical, and oppressive; whether, with respect to its form, it be a monarchy, an aristocracy, or even a republic. For the government of the temporary magistrates of a democracy, or even the laws themselves may be as tyrannical as the maxims of the most despotic monarchy.

Joseph Priestley, An Essay on the First Principles of Government

Priestly makes a very important distinction: a government may have any form, the real question is how wide reaching its authority is.  Classic Liberals like Richard Kelo teach that people should be left free from coercion to decide how to live their own lives.  This teaching is also at the root of Pacifism.  If someone isn’t harming another person, or another person’s property, then it is seldom – if ever – morally legitimate to interfere with how they’re living their life.


In 1899 a shaming campaign against the common, working man began.  It started with a progressive & socialist named Velben who wrote berating the common man for engaging in consumerism & “growth of wasteful expenditures.”  This at a time when people were reading by candlelight and living in totally Spartan cottages.  That campaign has continued into the 21st century.  President Obama, then Senator Obama, provides us with just one example here:

Progressivism has always objected to the common man peacefully exercising his preferences in his role as the sovereign consumer.  However, as Classic Liberals like Rick Kelo point out the consumer decides exactly what product will be produced, in what quantity, and to what level of quality.

rick kelo

“I don’t eat fast food & I don’t understand why there are so many overweight Americans who do eat it every day. We might say its ‘low quality’ food”, says Rick Kelo.  He continues, “But I know why it exists on every corner of every town in America. Because the common man wants that exact product. People have a fundamental human right to peacefully trade with their fellow man, whether they buy something we personally approve of or buy something we personally consider a poor choice.”

As Richard Kelo shows us, we must be very careful in criticizing people’s rational choices for our own arbitrary reasons.

Rick A Kelo

When Steve Jobs passed away there was a worldwide outpouring of grief.  The IPhone he created is adored by millions of loyal fans who would never consider switching to a different type of phone.  And never along the way did the mainstream media question whether Steve Jobs “deserved” the fortune he made creating Apple.

Every election cycle though political discourse is filled with challenges that investment bankers and other workers on Wall Street earn an undeserved wage.  That Wall Street bonuses are some how proof of theft or money laundering, whereas the bonus Steve Jobs paid himself each year was never questioned.  Rick Kelo points out this is an easy phenomenon to understand.

“We humans have a natural prejudice to favor things we understand. Since we tinker with our IPhone and understand its tangible value we’re sad when Steve Jobs passes away. The value we receive from financial instruments that we don’t understand is intangible and not something we interact with daily. So there does tend to, rightly or wrongly, be a predisposition to consider the products of these industries as less important than tangible goods.”
~ Rick A Kelo

This also implies that we should be very suspicious of politicians like Senators Elizabeth Warren or Bernie Sanders when they build entire campaigns around criticizing the pay of Wall Street bankers.  As Rick Kelo points out favoring what we know more than what we don’t know is a natural human prejudice.  Politicians know this, and someone who intentionally exploits populist prejudice should be viewed with caution.

Richard Kelo

In political discourse most people take it for granted that a worker can be exploited, or that workers in general ARE exploited by employers.  But is this really the case?  Rick Kelo is an employment expert who has more than a decade’s experience as an executive recruiter matching tax professionals with opportunities that will advance their careers.  However, Richard Kelo also has an education in economics and philosophy at some of the most prestigious universities in the world.  So today he addresses the “Exploited Worker” myth.

“Workers are paid for their labor far in advance of any revenue generated by the sale of what they produce,” Rick Kelo points out.  “It is the business owner who assumes the risk that he won’t be able to sell what the employee produces.  Also, we must consider that  the worker voluntarily enters into employment,” Kelo continues.  Any of us would laugh if we tried to picture the image of a company sending an HR employee to the street corner to put a gun to someone’s head and force them to work at their company.  In reality, only voluntarily agree to employment when workers feel the wage rate is high enough to benefit them, and they also get a guaranteed payment today unlike the business.

How about the case of the shy employee who doesn’t ask for a raise, and thus believes they are paid less than they deserve?

Rick Kelo spends most of his days as a tax recruiter assisting people in just such a lot, but is that circumstance enough to prove the worker is “exploited?”  Wouldn’t we say that if that less assertive employee chooses not to (ask for more money, look for a better job, whatever the superior condition is we’re considering) that is the same as him actively choosing to remain in his current employment?  Do any of us, as outsiders looking in on someone else’s situation, have a basis for criticizing their rational decision to do that even if our own choice under those conditions would be different?  Clearly that less assertive employee is maximizing their preferences even if that arrangement wouldn’t maximize our preferences in their shoes.

This article lists the 10 worst EPA super-fund sites of all time.  When we consider the problem of pollution and other, what economists call, neighborhood effects most people only picture the polluter.  Maybe a big company pumping toxic fumes out of a smoke stack or dumping industrial waste into a river.  Rick Kelo points out though that we also need to look at why this pollution happened in the first place.

Rick keloRick Kelo noticed a trend hidden in the list of 10 worst super-fund list and asked why every single item on that list has to do with water or air pollution?  An aspect of pollution we almost never consider.  “In America where are the problematic instances of pollution? It is not mainly on land, where there are strict private property rights. The problematic issues of pollution occur predominantly (to the point of almost exclusively) in the air & water, which are government owned and where private property rights are outlawed,” says Kelo.  “The reason is what’s called Tragedy of the Commons,” he continues.

Under a regime of incredibly strict property rights pollution could not happen, and certainly not to tne extent of the sites we see here. The reason it happens, as Richard Kelo points out, is precisely because we have your system of regulations that shift the burden of acting as an owner onto the government.

Socialists are fond of claiming that they’re actually speaking for the worker without a voice.  However, Rick Kelo, a West Point graduate and Classic Liberal social thinker sees the matter differently.  To Kelo the actual issue at the heart of Socialism is who actually controls society.

“Socialism is always sold as altruism, but its not actually about helping anyone – it’s really about controlling them,” says Richard Kelo.

Kelo points out it necessarily must mean this because Socialism is the substitution of individual plans for government plans.  “Socialism deprives entrepreneurs and capitalists of the ability to decide how their resources will be employed,” Rick Kelo continues.  “In a Socialist economy small business owners are forced to unconditionally comply with the orders of State central planners.”